Follow The 3 Wheels to Standardize the Economy


G20 Argentina

The 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit, was the 13th meeting of G20, held on 30 November and 1 December 2018. Looking back in time; In the year 1999, an International forum was started to promote discussions on policy issues to build up the financial stability globally. This forum includes institutions such as “World Bank”, IMF (International Monetary Fund) and “World Trade Organization”. The forum includes 20 major economies, so it is called G-20 or “ A Group of Twenty”. The G-20 hosts meetings separately with its members. In March, 7th, in Beijing at National People's Congress press meeting, the finance minister of China expressed his view while hosts in a two-day, G-20 meeting.The meeting shaped their comments mainly on government support and on tax reforms. The finance minister also expressed that the government can face the problems, but cannot escape from them. At the end of the G-20 meeting all the leaders, along with the finance minister and Governor of People's Bank agreed to use all the combined available policy tools collectively to strengthen and stabilize the market situations. The finance minister in the G-20 negotiations on monetary policies, he opined generally that the largest economies take an optimistic part in the serious matters and risks. At last the finance minister said that the agreement is up to the expectations of the country.

The media company interviewed the Finance Minister, and inquired about the G-20 meeting about the global economy. The Finance Minister gave a statement , that the fluctuations which are occurring in the bullion market, are because of the pessimistic outlook of the global investors, the leaders vowed that, these factors do not reflect on the global economy and by collective usage of combined policy tools, the government can face the situations, but cannot escape from the situations. Regarding the disagreement on monetary policies, the Finance Minister explained that the negative interest rates may decrease the bank balance sheets which may further lead the economy to risks. Along with the monetary policy , fiscal policies and structural reforms, should be promoted to stabilize the price in the markets. The media asked the finance minister about the how different economic conditions meet the finalized consensus. The Finance Minister replied all the leaders of G-20 agreed to use the policy tools commonly according to their necessity and situation. As the expectations met by the policy tools there will be no scope for the capital flows. The media asked about the structural reforms and the Finance minister replied that the country has lots of opportunities and launched many short and long term measures. He expressed that smaller and mid sized companies have followed the administrative procedures and those were very simplified and innovate. They followed a pricing system and urbanization reforms. The most reason behind this is decentralization. This is the distortion problem. Decentralization may lead to lack of stabilization of the economy.
Targets of G-20:
To run the economy smoothly, every country has to keep in balance all the three wheels that are stability, progress and development. The International Monetary Fund reform has to regulate and strengthen the international coordination to control and stabilize the effects of monetary policies. The progress agenda has to look towards the global supply and demand. All the countries have the policy tools to regulate the institutional policies to increase the trade.The development agenda is the most important where the growth is to be more balanced in the long run. The environmental and many factors involved in the global development agenda. As the world economy started the recovery program, the G-20 started managing its growth and development crisis.
There are high expectations that the 2016, G-20, gives China an ownership to lead the global economic governance, China is preparing to contribute its share for the world's benefit. The main function of the G-20 is to manage the major economic policies and to support the smaller countries. The activities of G-20 are not concerned only within the country, as they are of multi- platform, where the whole china can participate and express their views and support the economic governance. In 2013, the State Counselor said that China is the Participator, supporter and contributor for G-20 consensus.


Financial Scams


Financial hope for better 2019 

There was a high number of scams in 2015 - 2018, lets hope 2019 is better. As the watchdogs started to fight to conform with the number of fluctuations that has conformed to the financial business, this was revealed during a meeting to deal with the problem. The number of cases that the government has declared as illegal fundraising went up by over 70% in the past year, it was Yang Yuzhu who leads the inter-agency body assigned to deal with the issue, during a meeting on the 27th of April that has attended by around fourteen ministries as well as commissions.

Those who have attended the meeting that has been open to the media personnel never said anything pertaining to the number of fraud cases concerning the authorities in the past year. The government is actually unclear about what is enclosed in the illegal fundraising, however, there were more reported scams as well as Ponzi schemes. This, however, see the money from new investors who used to pay for the previous ones, they have shown in the news in the past years as well. The amount of the money that was involved in the scam in the past two years went up by over ½ in 2015 as well as the number of cases that involves more than a hundred million Yuan rose by 44% year after year, according to Yang.
With the rising coverage of the issues, the courts on the other hand do not have much judges with the financial information according to Yongyi, who also happened to be a judge of the Supreme People's Court. There were new kinds of scams that have been modelled for regulators encouraging Zhang Xiaojin who is an officer at the Supreme People's Procuratorate. According to the office of the top prosecutors, unlawful fundraising is normally done under the roof of the monetary modernization. The prosecutors must go through more training, this way, they can determine the difference between the scams as well as the financial technology, this is in accordance with the statement of Zhang.
The internet has made it harder for the regulators to restrict the coverage of the fraud, this is according to Yang. During the latter part of this year, the government has closed the Ezubo, which is a kind of P2P lending site that the investigators said has cheated more than 900,000 small investors from the more than fifty billion Yuan using the Ponzi scheme. According to the officials during a meeting once said that they will just use the newest technologies. This is to keep up with the stronger methodology of monitoring in terms of the financial sector, thus to persuade the government bodies to share some of the information that they have. They also said and promised to start the campaign in May. This aims to give some information about the risks and the effects of the scammers to the government.
The central government gives more time on the scam after untying the string of the financial corruptions. The Beijing government and so do with Shanghai as well as Shenzhen has paused the opening of the companies with the names suggests that they give some financial services, the people linked in this matter tells all about it, but it will just be for a period of time until the problems are settled. The documents sent to different firms last April said that the rules will be stricter for the internet finance products. The contents that assures high returns, endorsement of various celebrities as well as wrongful information will be banned in the net finance companies' advertisements.


Survive the Chinese Business Scene


Survive the Chinese Business Scene

We bring you Eight Golden Rules to Survive the Chinese Business Scene. The best way to learn about China is to be physically present and experience first-hand outside of luxury cars. Store visits and learning on the ground by checking up on the private residences are the best activities to learn about China. Travelling to third tier cities can give you a better overview picture of China.

Secondly, one must be sensitive to industrial changes. Common factor for business losses is that overseas firms are too obsessed with market share growth and abandon other competitive traits. For example, there were 20 or more foreign brewers in mid 90s for the beer sector. Each planned to capture 15% of the market. However, lack of differentiation made them compete head to head with 600 plus local brewers, heavily reliant on government subsidies. Twenty years on, same issue is still present. Other industries have similar traits to the beer sector, all facing overcapacity, highly fragmented, heavily subsidized by local government and foreigner willingly absorbing strategic investment losses.
The third key rule is to take it slow. Many liked to rush things. A CEO once wanted its operations to commence within 6 months. Being too fast can cause headaches later on due to lack of planning. Attention should be focused on looking for the suitable local partner. One must be patient or risk losing out on the negotiation tables with the Chinese partner.
The fourth rule is to understand that Chinese society work in groups. The trait is reinforced by Geert Hofstede's groundbreaking research on Chinese culture. Chinese may appear individualistic to outsiders and directly conflicts with the research. This is because Chinese appear collectivist among close family members, friends and clan. They co-operate within the circle and all other outsiders must compete fairly. It is extremely difficult to attain self-organized cooperation, as highlighted by Sun Yat Sen's observation for China. Chinese counterpart will also reluctant to agree to a win-win outcome. Negotiations may be re-open anytime even an agreement seems settled. They may argue that they have not bargained well and hard enough.
In China, mistrust as well as opportunism are widespread. One must understand this fifth rule well. Either you trust wholeheartedly at first meeting or trust only after gathering enough evidence. Chinese will only trust after cross examining a potential partner. China will use its position to gain upper advantage of groups outside their clan. There is no legal mechanism for such checks and balance. Chinese are usually skeptical of outside clan members. There may be issue on enforcing contractual agreements and signed letters, and one must always have countermeasures such as withholding cash until goods are delivered and examined for completeness.
The sixth rule is that trust takes a long time to foster due to interpersonal nature of trust. It is a great defense to foster close relationships in personal of business dealings. Building personal contacts is a must for business, and takes time and patience. One must attend sporting or dinner events. Drinking alcohol is part of the role. Smart experienced negotiators often dispose the alcohol from their glass to water glasses and wet towels available in restaurants.
The seventh rule is be ready to encounter any unusual behavior that may be common in China but not in western countries. Chinese often go beyond conventional negotiation tactics. For instance, they may threaten to use political links to block the distribution rights for the western companies' products. Another case involved Chinese party getting western guests drink excessively to prevent effective negotiations. Always be on alert as well as standby defense measures. Learn to drink well or delegate drinking to team members.
The final rule is that Chinese society is very hierarchical. Decision flows from top to down approach. There is little delegation and supervisory control is high. Middle level managers have little power in decision making and their role usually functions as passing orders and execution of orders.

Currency Value


Currency Value

The RMB was found by the PBoC to be overvalued in contrary to the beliefs that this currency was undervalued. The discussion of this particular currency came to the forefront following the currency regime deregulation by the PBoC. If this organization should stop their interference, the ratio of dollar demand to supply would cause a dramatic decline in the worth of the RMB currency. This information is supported by the market operations and the actions of the investors. You may need to know that the valuation of most assets is not always indicated by the ‘market forces'.

The market forces is the balance and or ratio of supply and demand. This is not the only definition of the term as it is described in many fashion but it is generally the economic fundamentals valuation of assets. The market fundamentals that drive the demand and supply can be considered as an overvalued currency. Technical factors also drive the supply and demand of assets. They rely on the changes in terms of supply to demand that results from the activities other than what the fundamental factors create. This can be explained using China's approval of the QFII program. This program allowed investors not native to the Asian country to buy Chinese stocks. The inclusion of these Chinese stocks on the MSCI global benchmark would have or should have increased the demand immediately for Chinese stocks. This would result in the increase of prices that was unrelated to and improvement in the economy's outlook.
It is taught that if there was an increase in price, it would be by an imperceptible amount. This is due to the trading levels being consistence with the supply and demand fundamental balance. The aim is for Chinese investors to off load their stocks at the point prices are increased thanks to the foreign purchases, unfortunately this was not the case. The prices fluctuated as expected from buying and in instances where the purchases materialized. In this instance, the fundamental valuation that usually anchors of the prices was absent.
The consensus of many traders is that the fundamental valuation has no real significance to the drive of the market. This is the opposite of what is taught in schools and one might have to unlearn this notion. Instead of total rejection, it might be more beneficial to you analyze the market and identify the times and conditions the prices react to the fundamentals.
Without the intervention of the PBoC the RMB currency is sure to lose value but it is not an indication that the currency is overvalued either. The truth of the matter simply is, if you were to try and obtain information from the fundamentals it is almost assured that you will get the complete opposite of what you seek thanks to the market itself being largely driven by technical. This causes the RMB to remain undervalued but not by a whole lot.
Is it possible for the market to settle on a suitable value for RMB?
Is it possible for the market to settle on a suitable value for RMB?aDo you support free trade? Do you support supply side economics? Do you support fiscal deficit limits and debt? These are all questions that seem to be of some principles but they are not. The same can be said for the value of the RMB being determined by the market. The principles sometimes work in certain situations and fail to in others. It may be best for you to just determine the conditions that they may work. The question arises about the conditions that would make China decide on the markets setting the value of the RMB currency.
In a situation such as this, you would have to ask yourself a couple questions. Do you have any political objectives such as the redistribution of capital or plan to aid in the protection, until it reaches a level of competitiveness, of selected industries? To answer this question you may need to look at the exchange rate as a whole then decide in which direction you will move it in relation economy's fundamentals. Some of the distortions in the Chinese economy will need to be eradicated as they are responsible for weakening the mispriced economical inputs and capital. In their case it has left them with a dependence on excess capacity, debt and a state in division. Innovative incentives and created values may be shadowed by the politics.


Fossil Fuel VS Renewable Energy Resources


Fossil Fuel VS Renewable Energy Resources

China, The world's largest producer of Photovoltaic power (it is a method to convert solar energy into current) and also the largest producer and consumer of coal . China leads the world in its production of renewable energy, to that of combined production of Germany and France power plants. China is in leading production of renewable energy than fossil fuels and nuclear power. In September 2013, as an action plan, to control the air pollution, China's government desired to utilize more renewable energy as it has abundant water, wind and solar power than oil, coal and gas. In the year 2013, the coal production and consumption increased rapidly and later on, it dropped continuously by 3.7% in 2015. However the central government restricted and issued directions for construction of new coal plants in the country, and the National Energy Agency banned new constructions of coal mines for three months and sealed some thousands of small coal mines. In the year 2016, even though wind power generation capacity increased , nearly 26% of the total turbines were not utilized up to their maximum extent. Despite this, new turbines, which can generate 33 million kilowatts of electricity are installed, and now the country reached in generating the electricity to 129 million kilowatts per year. In previous years the over supply of wind turbines and the lack of smart grid to control the fluctuations resulted in the wastage of the wind, hydro and solar energy. To meet the demand and to stabilize the supply, the local government, along with some grid companies assigned power quotas to control the weakening demand. Coal plants are the easiest and fastest way towards the economic growth and in creating jobs.
Diversified Preferences
Some of the experts expressed that, the adopted policies of the local government are not appropriate and they are interrupting the development of the renewable energy sources. And others expressed that government supports fossil fuels rather than renewable resources which are cheap and supports the local people by creating the jobs. In the month of December in some parts of the country the respective authorities squeezed the production and levied more fee on wind, solar and hydro power producers and in some places the authorities reduced the price paid by the state from 40 to 75 %, to facilitate the local grid. This was strongly opposed by the renewable energy producers, this resulted a major loss for the wind energy producers. Due to the consequences, the wind power generating companies lost more than 18 billion yuan in production slots, and the world's largest wind energy firms also suffered a loss of 500 million yuan in 2015 as some of their turbines were forced to stop the production. Despite the demand drops, the local authorities support the coal fired power plants, without central government approval, approved 155 new coal power plants which is three times more that that of the approval rate of the previous year.
Increased Pressure
In the year 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) in China, had set up some long term future plans and targeted to increase the production of non-fossil fuel sources to more than 90% by 2050. Coal is the cheapest source of power generator, which costs 0.3yuan for one kWh, whereas 0.6yuan for solar power. To meet the goal now the government has to impose a pollution tax or a carbon tax on producers of fossil fuels, ultimately then there will be a rise in the cost of production of electricity. If this tax is levied, then by 2020, the coal power generation cost increases to 0.85 yuan per kWh to that of 0.51 yuan and 0.62 yuan per kWh for wind and solar energy.
One of the Main Functions of the NDRC is to formulate and implement strategies of national economic and social development, annual plans, medium and long-term development plans; to coordinate economic and social development; to carry out research and analysis on domestic and international economic situation; to put forward targets and policies concerning the development of the national economy, the regulation of the overall price level and the optimization of major economic structures, and to make recommendations on the employment of various economic instruments and policies; to submit the plan for national economic and social development to the National People's Congress on behalf of the State Council.
The central government has to observe the consequences that are occurring by the local authorities and has to take certain measures to control and implement the national level policies which supports the economy's growth and works wonders.


Chinese Banking


AIIB 2018

The Chinese policymakers had many doubts a couple years ago that almost cause one of Beijing's policy success to be halted on a global scale. These were the plans that were made for the development of China's new bank. Beijing faced many doubts facing investing in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. These doubts arise from the notion that the country would not be able to convince other nations to support them. China was however able to overcome this obstacle thanks to a few Middle East governments who made significant cash investments. The course of direction was aided by the help of some very important European nations supporting them as well, regardless of the opposition shown by the U.S.

The prior Chinese vice premier and AIIB president along with other stalwart supporters and a former chief of the China Investment combination with overseas assertion was able to make the idea of the Asian bank to become a reality. Despite the financial difficulties that China is currently facing, the success of the establishment of the bank only serves to give Beijing a confidence boost needed to effectively play its role among the national financial institutions. The country was lacking this confidence in the initial stages of this venture due to the belief that there would be no financial backing.
The call on the Southeast Asian nations was discouraging as the governments of the majority of these nations were just not capable of financially backing the venture. They were in full support but did not have the finances to invest in the bank. It was subsequently the Middle East nations that made investments in the bank as they needed infrastructure and had the capability to pay for it. The Middle East nations deal in Oil and they possess foreign money. The implementation of this bank will amplify the influence that the Chinese government has on the financial development on a global stage.
There have already been fifty seven countries that have jumped on the wagon with a fraction of a bout a seventh of these countries being Middle East nations. They include Iran, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Emirates. The Chinese government has come under a lot of scrutiny with the question being asked if whether or not China is capable of properly and effectively operate a multilateral financial institute of this magnitude given the fact that the country has no prior experience in this field. It is the belief of many government skeptics that the AIIB will face losses.
Being a current member of the BRICS development bank was a factor that many used to challenge the credibility of China as the operator of this bank. The Chinese nation was to collaborate with the Russians on establishing another such lender. The implications that the Chinese government is unscrupulous would be brought to the forefront if an investment fund of this nature was established at the time suggested. The Russian government was fully with the idea of creating a bank with the Chinese. This was the argument brought by the AIIB proponents along with the fact that other BRICS bank members were competing to be the lead lender.
The AIIB will not only give China a stage to flaunt it financial influence but it allow the nation to receive positive feedbacks on the job being done. The Chinese government of the past was never for the idea of an institution of this magnitude despite the AIIB president's many pitches for one such institute to be erected in Beijing. The change in government since 2013 as seen China fully supporting the direction and ventures, the “one belt, one road” internal design and strategies for exportation. The Chinese leaders were persuaded to back the proposal of the bank's establishment by the potential forward movement of the ‘one belt, one road' plan by the AIIB. Zeng Peiyan, former vice premier who also leads the CCIEE was responsible of the proposal of the creation of the bank. The CCIEE supporting the proposal and the president of AIIB has had many consultations about the creation of the institute. It is the belief of many that the success of the AIIB is overwhelming and no one could have foreseen such great fortune and the response from so much people. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank investing in infrastructure in Asia


Ticking debt and bond time-bombs


China Railway

China Railway Material Company (CRM), the biggest supplier for railroad construction materials has suspended all trading on its bonds worth 16.8 billion yuan. This is the first trading halt for a bond security and investor has been fearful since. CRM bonds are traded on platform offered by NAFMII. The company divulged that it is facing cash flow problem to repay the debt and is drafting a plan for protecting bond holders. Resumption of trading for the bonds is uncertain and not specified. CRM is the first corporation under the central government's supervision to freeze bond trades in order to address its debt issues. It is one of the handful of Chinese corporations facing default issues for their bonds as China faces economy slowdown. Shanghai Yunfeng, a subsidiary under Greenland Holdings, China's 3rd largest real estate developer, defaulted on 2 debt notes worth 2 billion. The company refused to work with investigation launched by NAFMII. Sinosteel Corporation, also a government owned steel company had defaulted on its debt notes repayment worth 2 billion. Baoding Tianwei, another government linked entity had reneged on its local bonds worth 4.5 billion in yuan. Analysts are concerned that the debt issue will hit the bond market for nonfinancial companies for future years.

CRM's decision shocked bond investors and may be a signal of more debt woes. New bond issuance will be affected negatively in terms of pricing and cost. Increasing financial costs will restrict companies from raising funds in the bond markets. Banks, insurance entities and fund managers have pulled back bond investments, according to CIC. 49 planned bond issuances were cancelled for March and April due to market fears. Private and State enterprises have long had debt troubles. However government has been trying hard to contain the problem. Bond investors have been enjoying government support to guarantee the face value of bonds repayment. Government has been stepping in with cash funding support to prevent default. The new policies launched to control economic slowdown are coming to an end. Government is retracting its support for inefficient companies and cut excess capacity. Investors are used to trusting government bailouts and rarely find any debt problems, until recently. They accepted the minimal financial transparency by companies issuing the bonds. Timely information were not available from companies and investors have difficulties finding a valid contact for information.
In the years before investor are more concerned on the issuer's connection with the government compared to disclosure of financials. It is not feasible anymore. Beijing policymakers have begun drafting rules in order to strengthen disclosure of financial info and credit rating for bonds. China Regulatory Commission for Securities and China Central Bank are heading the initiative. The guidelines could change the investing landscape by addressing the communication channel problem. Investors have been more careful since government issued orders to diminish overcapacity. Tianwei bond default made investor very nervous. Transparency issue forced NAFMII to investigate in detail the parent company for Yunfeng. Yunfeng has massive fund raising since 2012 to 2014, raising a total of 8.2 billion from private bond markets. Yunfeng transferred a few property to parent company Greenland and many feared bond default would happen when Greenland stops backing Yunfeng's debt. Bondholder tried requesting for financial reports from the underwriter but was not successful. Bondholders are prepared to sue Yunfeng and Greenland for lack of financial disclosures.
Investors questioned the bond underwriter status for Huayu Energy which missed repayment deadline for its bonds. Regulators are investigating any improper transfers from bond issuer's bank account to parent companies or subsidiaries. Tianwei is on the brink of default but share price were rising for the listed arm. The company arranged a few asset swaps since 2011 by transferring most valuable assets to Baobian Electric, a listed entity in Shanghai Stock Exchange. Baobian is profitable since 2014 and share price is steadily rising. However, Tianwei is suffering financially and had since defaulted on four term notes batches. Bond investors in the defaulting companies are trapped in a deteriorating credit environment. There is a real danger of high leverage for capital taken from retail investors. Wealth manager invested the proceeds in these bond markets.
China Railway Materials Company Limited (CRM) was reconstructed from China Railway Materials Commercial Corporate(CRMCC), the former Materials Administration Bureau of Ministry of Railways(MOR), with the approval of the State-owned Assets Supervision & Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC).

CRM is an ultra-large supply chain services provider focusing on serving customers in the markets of railway materials, steel products and minerals in China. Headquartered in Beijing, CRM has established over 1,000 subsidiaries, branches and operation offices, including seven operating overseas subsidiaries in Hong Kong, the United States, Australia and Sierra Leone.

CRM provide railway materials supply chain services including procurement, supply, quality control, inventory management, logistics, processing and information management in respect of railway materials such as railway diesel products, steel rails, key components of rail vehicles and steel and cement for railway construction, to serve the key sectors of the railway industry in China, namely, railway operations, rail vehicle production and railway construction.
A systemic risk is surfacing due to widening spread between asset yields and debt costs. Credit rating institutions have so far declared the market for bonds as being safe, but still can succumb to random risks. Analysts fear there are more problems to come. Many bonds could be on the verge of downgrade and when that happens, there could be a huge wave of sell-offs.


Rise as an economic powerhouse


china economic powerhouse

China is being watched carefully by global leader for every of China's foreign and economic policies and moves. Every foreign investors and expatriates are influenced by private views molded from their country, geographical region and political opinions. Security developments in China are different and that makes relations between the other parts of the world under pressure. There are safety concerns due to China's rising economic power. Many welcome the accomplishment that had pulled the world's growth. However, most Americans view it as a threatening situation to their own country's world standing. European citizens do not view China as a political threat but have similar concerns that China may forcefully preach their own development values. Most of the world do not see it as threatening, but there is diverse views among the people of world.

About 60% of Americans were concerned on China's rising might in economic power and about 75% think it is no trustworthy. China may have been though to contribute to US trade deficits and capturing the labor markets with low wages offered. Many filed complaints with WTO on China's perceived unfair subsidized export markets. US has used to basis for non-exclusion of China in the Trans Pacific Partnerships. On a side interesting note, Chinese people are fond of US, with surveys showing Chinese people admiring American innovative values and scientific achievements. US had an overwhelming advantage in exercising its subtle power image to complement its military might.
The perception for US and China relationship is influenced by economic trends. China emerged as the world's biggest trading country at the same time America is nursing from economic injury and recovering slowly from the 2008 subprime financial crisis. Europe was soon having fiscal budget issues around 2011. Gallup polls revealed that most Americans held the belief that China is the biggest economy in the world. It was completely different in 2000 where only 10% of American people thought China as the top while a huge 65% majority thought US as the top. Americans has good rating for China up till 2010. Sentiments turned for the worse as China becomes more aggressive in island dispute and negotiations. U.S. is seeking to rebalance its power and influence in Asia. Other parts of the globe sees US as main economic power and most Asian nations held the same view. Europe thinks it is otherwise by supporting China as the top economic superpower.
China's strong trade balance is the main reason U.S. and Europe views China as the top economic superpower. China has large trade surpluses against U.S. and Europe. However it has had trade deficits with other parts of the world, in particular commodity producers and Eastern Asian neighbors. There are considerable insecurity in the Western regions on their competitiveness. A country's true measure of economic resilience is more from its institutional quality and human capital development, which is represented more by GDP per capita and less by trade balance amount. China has only a GDP per capita ranking of 80 compared to world and not ready to take pole position.
Europeans have a more positive feelings for China compared to U.S. as there is lower power rivalry. They are also trying to avoid U.S. linked initiatives. There is wide perception difference between official opinions and popular opinions in Western Europe. Chinese and German economic relationship seem to be the strongest in Europe, but surveys showed that German public are less positive about China, perhaps due to cultural differences. Many would have the view that British would view China in an unfavorable light caused by Hong Kong's treatment by China and trade deficits that are large. In actual reality, there are extensive personal interactions built upon by tourism and financial links. Britain took the first initiative within EU to join China led Asian Infrastructure Investments Bank.
Outside of Europe and U.S., there are diverse views on China. It varies significantly by region and time period. After the Asia Financial Crisis, views on China become less favorable by Asian nations when they provided economic support. Island dispute dominate the headline in today's time. Latin America and African economy enjoyed good growth led by China's rise, but a slowdown is dimming their prospects. Public perception towards China is shaped by foreign and economic policy concerns. China has a huge challenge to deal with the complicated relationships when the whole world is slowing down economically.


Expanding position in worldwide finance



The nation's monetary markets are developing, foreign investments continue pouring in, and wealth is streaming outward. What would it take to attain an innovative part of world lender? China, as the world's biggest saver, has a unique role to play in the worldwide monetary rebalancing toward developing markets. Today, these nation expresses 38 % of overall GDP yet represent only 7 % of global foreign investments in values and just 13 % of worldwide international lending.

Their part appears to be ready to develop in the moving post-crisis budgetary scene since the propelled economies face slow development and calming demographic patterns. As the leading man in that move, China could turn into a genuine worldwide lender and, with some change, set up the renminbi as a noteworthy universal currency.
So far, a long-closed economy— one, even with even above 3 trillion dollars in foreign capital— can't swing its entryways open overnight. China's local money related markets will need to extend and grow further, and revenues earned by companies, government and family units must be ascent if the nation is to draw in and convey more capital successfully. And equally the obstructions that keep people and organizations from capitalizing freely outside the environs of China, and strangers from capitalizing on them, will need to reduce bit by bit, and the nation must create the trust of worldwide financial specialists. Proceeded with a change in China, combined with its endless household investment funds and outsized part in world exchange, could make the nation one of the world's most prominent suppliers of capital in years to come.
Development and developing agonies in China's business sectors
As opposed to most growing economies, where loaning has been stagnant in the midst of the extensive deleveraging, bank advances in China have developed by 5.8 trillion dollars since 2007, achieving 132 % of GDP—higher than the propelled economy healthy of 123 %. Around 85 % of that Chinese loaning has been to organizations; family units represent the rest. This quick development has raised the apparition of a glory bubble and a future ascent in nonperforming advances. However, controllers have endeavored to moderate the pace in overheated territories, for example, land.
China's corporate-stock business sector is likewise evolving. Securities remarkably from nonfinancial organizations have developed by 45 % every year in the course of recent years, securities from monetary establishments by 23 %. There is adequate space for further development since China's levels of security business sector obtaining are altogether beneath those of cutting edge economies. For sure, security financing could give an option origination of capital for the nation's extending corporate segment, empowering banks to expand their loaning to families and little and fair size ventures.
Dissimilar to other numerous real value markets, China's securities exchange has not bounced back after the fiscal emergency and worldwide recession. Absolute market capitalization has reduced by 50 % since 2007, diving from 7.2 trillion dollars in 2007 to 3.6 trillion dollars in the second quarter of 2012. Financial specialists sent valuations taking off at the business sector's crest. However, fears of a lull and a more reasonable perspective of organization costs hosted their eagerness, underscoring the way that China's value markets, similar to those of other rising economies, stay focus to sharp swings.
Cross-fringe venture surges
China has challenged global patterns in cross-outskirt capital streams, which caved in 2008 and remain 60 % beneath their precrisis crest. For China, by difference, remote direct venture (FDI), cross-fringe advances and deposits, and outside portfolio reserves in values and security are 44 % more than 2007 levels (Exhibition 2). Aggregate outside speculation into China came to 477 billion dollars towards the end of 2011, surpassing the 2007 top of 331 billion dollars.
Foreign organizations, anxious to build up existence in China, represent about 66% of the inflows. Resources from the external establishment and discrete financial specialists could give another leg to development as long-standing limitations on foreign portfolio venture keep on easing. The quantity of experienced foreign institutional investors affirmed by Chinese controllers has increased since 2005 with a total of 33 drivers to a total of 207 in 2012 and will certainly still improve. Controllers likewise are giving enlisted foreign subsidies and more scope to put their property of renminbi offshore in China's local capital markets. Both actions have additional opened the way to foreign investment in those business sectors.
Notably, the country's central bank, the People's Bank of China, has gained the world's biggest stock of foreign-currency investments; in 2012, it was 3.3 trillion dollars. While most of this cash is capitalized into safe sovereign liabilities —for example, US treasuries, which represent about 1.2 trillion dollars of China's saves—the development in such ventures has impeded extensively. Rather, China is both extricating confinements on different sorts of money-related surges and moving to broaden its foreign assets. That was the driving force behind the 2007 establishment of the China Venture Organization, one of the world's biggest sovereign funds stores, with resources of 482 billion dollars. The organization's possessions incorporate shares in a considerable lot of the world's blue-chip organizations; vitality, mining, and infrastructure ventures; worldwide landed property; and a stake in Heathrow Airport, London.
Chinese institutions are likewise trading up their part in the world's finance. Foreign direct ventures by both state-claimed and private division; Chinese groups developed from just 1 billion dollars in the year 2000 to 101 billion dollars in 2011. Toward the end of 2011, Chinese groups represented 364 billion dollars of world's foreign direct ventures, with the vast majority of it secured to commodities. Nearly half of these reserves went to other developing markets—an offer higher than that for organizations in cutting-edge economies.
A lot of China's quickly expanding global loaning is attached to foreign speculation transacts including Chinese establishments (for example, financing a mine in Peru, with an erection to be embarked on by a Chinese organization). Exceptional foreign credits and loans totalled 838 billion dollars toward the end of 2011. To put this entirety in context, consider the way that the aggregate level of loans outstanding from five of the world's noteworthy mutual improvement banks is about 500 billion dollars. Subsequently from 2009, Chinese lends to America (Latin) have surpassed those of both the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank.
As China's monetary markets have turned out to be more vigorous and more profound, the estimation of its local financial assets—including securities, equities, and advances—tallies to about 7.4 trillion dollars, trailing Japan and USA. That is a more than ten times the increment in a range of two decades, and it does exclude Hong Kong's role in directing assets to and from China.


China Wealth Management Dilemma


Chinese Money


Financial market regulators commented that there are loopholes in their guidelines to regulate the wealth management space and protect lay investors. CSRC and CBRC has tried making new laws. There are still gaps in the regulatory space due to rapid growth for wealth management. The combined assets managed by banks, insurance companies, trust funds and fund managers almost exceed 90trillion yuan. There are risks surfacing as the sector grows. Regulators are starting to doubt the regulations as inadequate. There are regulatory holes need to be plugged. For instance, CBRC decided on reducing risk by asking banks to split the lending and wealth management business. Regulation was in draft but never really executed due to disagreements. There were great arguments over the split.

Stock market bear downturn went against wealth manager's investing performance. Insurance companies who had vested interest in stock markets has seen their asset value fall. Banking officials pointed at the regulators for encouraging risk taking by wealth managers. There was no good coordination between different agencies. Asset management sector is getting messier due proliferation of complicated investment package. Chinese banks controlled biggest portion of funds in 2015 and are invested via wealth management space. Trusts, securities firms, insurance companies and fund corporations were handling 16trillion, 12 trillion, 11 trillion and 9 trillion yuan respectively. Smartphones and internetas well as interest rate drops all pushed retail investors and huge financial outfits to investment in these wealth management package.
Sales proceeds from these products were ploughed into the equity markets. Asset managers are risking the funds on stock markets in Shenzhen and Shanghai. Some invested in corporate bonds and private placement. A total of about 7trillion yuan is invested into stocks, bonds as well as futures securities. 1.7trillion was invested in structured products. Bank executives were warned that borrowing spiked to cover for share market investment. Despite the share market volatility, equities are not riskiest. Private placement presents the highest risk. Banks are also funding out of balance sheet mezzanine financing, which is investing in shares of private companies via loans.
About 20% of assets from wealth management are invested into these types of financing. Good companies are targeted for the financing arrangement as it increases leverage risk. Risks have increase since the stock market crash and bubble is forming. Many see this as the only way for making profits due to low interest rate environment. Asset managers are finding it tough to find great investments. There are about 200billion excess funds with nowhere to invest except considering for share market. Moody's reported that weak share market could adversely affect bank's asset quality and profits due to weak stock lending and share market related custody services. Moody's expects more defaults on company debt as borrowers struggle on repaying their leverage. Wealth management as a whole should be revamped and risks are real.
Regulators have not been interfering with the investments. They have paid close scrutiny on funds raised from short term products in wealth management. These money are invested in long term projects which presents a mismatch. Asset management executives support more disclosure in investment products. Same rule and standardization should apply to the products similar to public funds. Retail investors ought to be protected by regulators by enhancing these measures. All regulatory bodies from China have pursued different goals and agendas and neglected on coordination. Each focused on their own segments. It is not effective due to loophole with different frameworks, especially in wealth management space. There are some who praise the innovative form of segmentation. Top policymakers have the ultimate power to pass through legislations for unification of regulations. There were examples of cooperation in the past. For instance, in 2003, CBRC as well as CSRC jointly instructed banks and asset managers to be more transparent in their pool of capital. However it still lacks results as banks tried to transfer out the capital by channeling to other companies.
Capital pool enterprise is closely linked to wealth management package for stocks and corporate bonds investment. CSRC allowed fund manager and broker to push and market wealth management package. CBRC followed suit for banks and CIRC launched similar wealth management package rules for insurance enterprises. Each regulator are doing their best on its own area of expertise. However unification is still yet to be implemented to standardize regulations in wealth management space.


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